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LESSON FOUR: INTERMEDIATE STUDIES

Student NotesAll of the "Major" scales have a cousin. Major scales are related to "Minor" scales. Unlike the cheerful major scale, the minor scale is darker. Minor scales are more introspective and mysterious.


The relationship between 1 major scale and it's cousin the minor scale is the number of sharps or flats. They both have the same number. The C scale is void of any sharps or flats. It's cousin, the A minor scale, is also void of any sharps or flats. Here is a list of the major scales and their cousins, the minor scales.

  • C major and A minor
  • G major and E minor
  • F major and D minor
  • D major and B minor
  • A major and F sharp minor
  • E flat major and C minor
  • E major and C sharp minor
  • A flat major and F minor
  • B major and G sharp minor


To find the minor cousin of a major scale is easy. Play the root note of any major scale, then count to the left down the keyboard 3 half steps. The formula for constructing a minor scale is:

whole-half-whole-whole-half-whole-whole

On the final exam for "Intermediate Studies" you will be asked for the formula for constructing a Major scale and a Minor scale. Copy both of these formulas in your music workbook.

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